Updated Dec. 15, 2108
*Babies are essentially born pre-polluted by the air breathed by the mother during pregnancy. Particulate matter and the chemicals attached to them can cross the placenta and interfere with fetal development
* Pregnant women exposed to more air pollution give birth to babies with significantly more chromosomal aberrations including shorter telomeres and epigenetic changes which can be passed on to multiple subsequent generations. Air pollution shortens the length of telomeres in adults.
* Exposure even to brief episodes of pollution at critical stages in the development of the human embryo can cause a person to experience an increased likelihood of multiple chronic diseases including those of the heart, lungs, immune system and brain and even obesity, diabetes, cancer and shortened life expectancy.
* Air pollution breathed by a pregnant mother causes epigenetic changes in the womb, which is associated with higher rates of lung and heart disease in animals and humans in childhood and adulthood.
* Pollution impairs virtually every component of human reproduction—causing sperm DNA damage, increase in the rates of male infertility, impaired menstruation, miscarriages and other adverse reproductive outcomes.
* Children living near petrochemical industries are exposed to high PAH levels, contributing to DNA damage. Industrial pollution is even more genotoxic than traffic pollution.
*Regarding birth weights and poor neurologic outcomes, males are generally more affected by prenatal air pollution than females.
*Even preconception pollution exposure of the mother increases the risk of congenital malformations and impairs organogenesis for critical organs like the heart.